Particular strikes to particular places with tool.
Hit to legs with heavy object
Hit to head with heavy object
Kick to face and neck
Clubbing in head
Base strength for picking something up
Wolf attacks rabies
Wolves: quick bites to hand and feet
Wolves: prefer to attack from behind, knocking you over, start eating straight away
Wolves: more likely to attack women/children/sick/people of smaller build
Attacking humans atypical behaviour developed by particular packs with habituation with loss of fear of humans – clustered in space and time
Wolves: pack size five to eight
Attack: weight, momentum, and bite to bring down and get grip
Speed, endurance, persistence.
Wolves: kill without being killed.
6 stages: searching, approach, getting prey running, wolves go in multiple directions looking for vulnerable individual, target sick, injured or older, one wolf runs after more vulnerable, rest of pack starts running after, relentless pursuit wears animal down, lead wolf attempts to grab hold of prey, holds with canines while other wolves go in and bite. Pack doesn’t give up. If frustrated, pack barks and huddles, gets courage back, goes back in for another vulnerable prey. Every wolf grabs hold.
Success rate one in ten.
Wolves: larger head, stronger bite
Young wolves in a protected area: ‘rendez-vous’ site covered by rocks
Other reasons for attacking humans: hunger, harsh weather
Dire wolves: larger pack sizes (30) – attacked larger prey
Bears: size and strength
Carnivores stealing carcasses – protect against other carcass. For example, grizzly bear vs wolf – grizzlies almost always steal carcass
Eating quickly makes sense in difficult environment
Large packs make less vulnerable
Smaller size more flexible in hunting behaviour